- Diabetes Definition
- Types and Causes Of Diabetes
- Signs And Symptoms
- Treatment for gestational diabetes
- Treatment for prediabetes
Diabetes is a number of diseases which involve problems with the hormone insulin.
Normally, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar and fat from the food you eat. diabetes will occur when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin, or when the body doesn’t respond appropriately to insulin.
As yet, there’s no cure. individuals with diabetes need to manage their disease to remain healthy.
The large majority of patients with type 2 diabetes at the start had prediabetes. Their blood glucose levels remained higher than the normal, still not high enough to benefit a diabetes diagnosis. The cells in the body are getting resistant to insulin.
Studies have indicated that even at the prediabetes stage, some injury to the circulatory system and also the heart might already have occurred.
Types and Causes Of Diabetes
There are 3 types of diabetes :
- Type 1
- Type 2
1) Type 1 Diabetes
The body does not produce insulin. Some individuals could refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. people usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, usually in early adulthood or teenage years.
Type 1 diabetes is nowhere near as common as type 2 diabetes. about 10% of all diabetes cases are type one.
Patients with type 1 diabetes can require taking insulin injections for the rest of their life. they need to also ensure correct blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.
Between 2001 and 2009, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes within the under 20s in the USA rose 23rd, As per search for diabetes in Youth data published by the CDC control and Prevention.
2) Type 2 Diabetes
The body does not build sufficient insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body don’t respond to insulin (insulin resistance).
Approximately 90 % of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.
Some people could also be able to control their type 2 diabetes signs by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing several exercises, and observing their blood glucose levels. However, type 2 diabetes is usually a progressive disease – it gradually gets worse – and the patient can probably end up having to take insulin, usually in tablet form.
Overweight and obese people have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with a healthy weight.
people with plenty of visceral fat also referred to as central obesity, belly fat, or abdominal obesity, are especially in danger. Being overweight/obese causes the body to release chemicals that may destabilize the body’s cardiovascular and metabolic systems.
Being overweight, physically inactive and eating the incorrect foods all contribute to our risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Drinking only 1 can of (non-diet) soda per day will raise our risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 22nd, researchers from Imperial College London reported in the journal Diabetologia. The experts think that the result of sugary soft drinks on diabetes risk may be a straight one, instead of just an impact on body weight.
The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also greater as we get older. specialists are not completely sure why however say that as we age we tend to put on weight and become less physically active.
Those with a close relative who had/had type 2 diabetes, individuals of middle eastern, African, or South Asian descent also have a higher risk of developing the disease.
Men whose testosterone levels are low are found to possess a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, say that low testosterone levels are connected to insulin resistance.
3) Gestational diabetes
This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women’s bodies are unable to allow enough insulin to move all of the glucose into their cells because they have very high levels of blood glucose, resulting in more and more rising levels of glucose.
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy.
The majority of gestational diabetes patients will control their diabetes with exercise and diet. Between 10% to 20% of them can require taking some kind of blood-glucose-controlling medicines. undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes will raise the chance of complications throughout childbirth. The baby is also larger than he/she should be.
Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University observed that women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats.
Signs And Symptoms
It is possible to have diabetes with only very soft symptoms or without exhibiting any symptoms at all. Such cases will leave some individuals with diabetes unaware of the condition and undiagnosed. This happens in around half people with type 2 diabetes.
A condition called prediabetes that usually results in type two diabetes also produces no symptoms. type 2 diabetes and its symptoms develop slowly.
Type 1 diabetes will go unnoticed however is less possible to do, therefore. some of its symptoms listed below will return on suddenly and be accompanied by nausea, vomiting or stomach pains.
It is necessary to see a doctor if there’s any suspicion of diabetes or if any of the below signs and symptoms are present – prompt diagnosis and management lowers the chance of serious complications.
Here is some signs and symptoms of diabetes you shouldn’t ignore :
- Frequent urination
- Disproportionate thirst
- Intense hunger
- Weight gain
- Increased fatigue
- Blurred vision
- Itchy skin
Symptoms of type one diabetes usually seem suddenly and are usually the reason for checking blood sugar levels. because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or might not be evident, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has suggested screening guidelines. The ADA suggests that the following people be screened for diabetes:
- Anyone with a body mass index more than 25, regardless of age, who has further risk factors, like high blood pressure, a inactive lifestyle, a history of polycystic ovary syndrome, giving birth to a baby who weighed over 9 pounds, a history of diabetes in pregnancy, high cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease, and having a close relative with diabetes.
- Anyone older than age 45 is suggested to receive an initial blood sugar screening, and then, if the results are normal, to be screened each 3 years thereafter.
Tests for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes
Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test : This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar connected to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. the higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you will have with sugar connected. an A1C level of 6.5 % or higher on 2 separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. an A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 % indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal.
If the A1C test results are not consistent, the test is not available, or if you have certain conditions which will build the A1C test inaccurate — like if you are pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:
Random blood sugar test : A blood sample will be obtained at a random time. regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — or higher suggests diabetes.
fasting blood sugar test : A blood sample will be obtained following an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level but 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is common. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it’s 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on 2 separate tests, you have diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test : For this test, you quick overnight, and also the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are examined periodically for the next 2 hours. A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal. A reading of more than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) after 2 hours indicates diabetes. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates prediabetes.
If kind one polygenic disorder is suspected, your body waste is going to be tested to appear for the presence of a byproduct made once muscle and fat tissue are used for energy once the body does not have enough hypoglycemic agent to use the out there aldohexose (ketones).
Your doctor will seemingly run a check to examine if you’ve got the harmful system cells related to kind one polygenic disorder known as autoantibodies.
Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes
Tests for physiological condition polygenic disorder
Your doctor can possibly evaluate your risk factors for gestational diabetes early in your pregnancy:
If you are at high risk of gestational diabetes — as an example, if you were obese at the beginning of your pregnancy, you had gestational diabetes throughout a previous pregnancy, otherwise, you have a mother, father, sibling or child with diabetes — your doctor could test for diabetes at your first prenatal visit.
If you are at average risk of gestational diabetes, you will probably have a screening test for gestational diabetes sometime during your second trimester — usually between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy.
Your doctor could use the following screening tests:
Initial glucose challenge test : you will begin the glucose challenge test by drinking a syrupy glucose solution. One hour later, you’ll need a blood test to measure your blood sugar level. A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.2 to 7.8 mmol/L) is usually considered normal on a glucose challenge test, although this might vary at specific clinics or labs. If your blood sugar level is higher than normal, it only suggests that you have the next risk of gestational diabetes. Your doctor can order a follow-up test to see if you have gestational diabetes.
Follow-up glucose tolerance testing : For the follow-up test, you will be asked to quick overnight and then have your fasting blood sugar level measured. “Then you’ll drink another sweet solution including the high density of glucose — and your blood glucose level is examined every hour for a period of 3 hours.”If a minimum of 2 of the blood sugar readings is higher than the normal values established for each of the 3 hours of the test, you will be diagnosed with gestational diabetes.
Depending on what type of diabetes you have, blood sugar observation, insulin, and oral medications could play a role in your treatment.
Eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and participating in regular activity are also necessary factors in managing diabetes.
Treatment For All Types Of Diabetes
An essential part of managing diabetes — as well as your overall health — is maintaining a healthy weight through a healthy diet and exercise plan:
Healthy eating : Contrary to popular perception, there isn’t any specific diabetes diet. you will need to center your diet on more fruits, vegetables and whole grains — foods that are high in nutrition and fiber and low in fat and calories — and cut down on animal products, refined carbohydrates, and sweets. In fact, it is the best eating plan for the complete family. sugary foods are OK once in a while, as long as they are counted as a part of your meal plan.
however, understanding what and how much to eat may be a challenge. A registered dietitian will help you produce a meal plan that fits your health goals, food preferences, and lifestyle. this can probably include carbohydrate counting, particularly if you have type one diabetes.
Physical activity : everybody needs regular aerobic exercise, and people who have diabetes are no exception. Exercise decreases your blood sugar level by moving sugar into your cells, where it’s used for energy. Exercise also will increase your sensitivity to insulin, which implies your body needs less insulin to move sugar to your cells.
Get your doctor’s ok to exercise. Then select activities you enjoy, like walking, swimming or biking. what is most important is creating physical activity part of your daily routine. Aim for a minimum of 30 minutes or more of aerobic exercise most days of the week. If you haven’t been active for a while, begin slowly and build up step by step.
Treatment For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes Combines insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, regular blood sugar tests, and carbohydrate counting for treatment.
Treatment of type two diabetes primarily involves monitoring of your blood sugar, along with diabetes medications, insulin or both.
Monitoring your blood sugar : depending on your treatment plan, you will check and record your blood sugar as often as many times a week to as several as four to eight times on a daily basis.
Careful monitoring is the only way to confirm that your blood sugar level remains within your target range. people who receive insulin therapy also might choose to monitor their blood sugar levels with a continuous glucose monitor.
Although this technology does not yet replace the glucose meter, it will provide important information about trends in blood sugar levels.
Even with careful management, blood sugar levels will sometimes change unpredictably. With help from your diabetes treatment team, you will learn how your blood sugar level changes in response to food, physical activity, medications, illness, alcohol, stress — for women, fluctuations in hormone levels.
in addition to daily blood sugar monitoring, your doctor can probably suggest regular A1C testing to measure your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. Compared with repeated daily blood sugar tests, A1C testing better indicates how well your diabetes treatment plan is functioning overall. an elevated A1C level might signal the need for a change in your insulin regimen or meal plan.
Your target A1C goal might vary depending on your age and numerous other factors. However, for many people with diabetes, the American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C of below 7 %. ask your doctor what your A1C target is.
Insulin : people with type one diabetes want insulin therapy to survive. many people with type two diabetes or gestational diabetes also want insulin therapy.
Many types of insulin are available, together with rapid-acting insulin, long-acting insulin, and intermediate choices. depending on your needs, your doctor could prescribe a combination of insulin types to use throughout the day and night.
Insulin cannot be taken orally to lower blood sugar because stomach enzymes interfere with insulin’s action. often insulin is injected using a fine needle and syringe or an insulin pen — a device that looks like a large ink pen.
An insulin pump can also be an option. The pump is a device about the size of a cell phone worn on the outside of your body. A tube attaches the reservoir of insulin to a catheter that is inserted under the skin of your abdomen. A tubeless pump that works wirelessly is also now available.
You program an insulin pump to dispense specific amounts of insulin. It is adjusted to deliver more or less insulin depending on meals, activity level and blood sugar level.
An emerging treatment approach, not yet available, is closed-loop insulin delivery, also called the artificial pancreas. It links a continuous glucose monitor to an insulin pump.
The device automatically delivers the right quantity of insulin when the monitor indicates the requirement for it. There are a variety of different versions of the artificial pancreas, and clinical trials have had encouraging results. more research must be done before a completely functional artificial pancreas will receive regulatory approval.
However, the first step toward an artificial pancreas was approved in 2013. Combining a continuous glucose monitor with an insulin pump, this technique stops insulin delivery when blood sugar levels drop too low.
Studies on the device found that it might prevent low blood sugar levels overnight without significantly increasing morning blood sugar levels.
Oral or other medications : sometimes different oral or injected medicines are prescribed as well. Some diabetes medicines excite your pancreas to produce and deliver more insulin. Others inhibit the production and release of glucose from your liver, which implies you need less insulin to move sugar into your cells.
Still, others block the action of the stomach or intestinal enzymes that break down carbohydrates or build your tissues more sensitive to insulin. metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) is mostly the first medication prescribed for type two diabetes.
Transplantation : In some people who have type one diabetes, a pancreas transplant could also be a choice. islet transplants are being studied as well. With a successful pancreas transplant, you would no longer need insulin medical care. however, transplants are not always successful — and these procedures cause serious risks. you need a lifetime of immune-suppressing drugs to prevent organ rejection.
This medication will have serious side effects, together with a high risk of infection, organ injury and cancer. because the side effects can be more dangerous than diabetes, transplants are usually reserved for individuals whose diabetes cannot be controlled or those who also need a kidney transplant.
Bariatric surgery : although it is not specifically considered a treatment for type two diabetes, individuals with type two diabetes who also have a body mass index higher than 35 might benefit from this type of surgery.
Individuals who’ve undergone gastric bypass have seen important improvements in their blood sugar levels. However, this procedure’s long-term risks and advantages for type two diabetes are not yet known.
Treatment for gestational diabetes
Controlling your blood sugar level is crucial to keeping your baby healthy and avoiding complications throughout delivery. in addition to maintaining a healthy diet and exercising, your treatment plan could include monitoring your blood sugar and, in some cases, using insulin or oral medications.
Your healthcare provider will monitor your blood sugar level throughout labor. If your blood sugar rises, your baby could release high levels of insulin — which may result in low blood sugar right after birth.
Treatment for prediabetes
If you have prediabetes, healthy lifestyle options will benefit you to bring your blood sugar level back to normal or at least keep it from rising toward the levels seen in type two diabetes.
Maintaining a healthy weight through exercise and healthy eating will help. exercising a minimum of 150 minutes a week and losing 5 to 10 % of your body weight could stop or delay type two diabetes.
Sometimes medications — like metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) — are a choice if you are at high risk of diabetes, together with when your prediabetes is worsening or if you have cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease or polycystic ovary syndrome.
In other cases, medications to control cholesterol — statins, in particular — and high blood pressure medications are required. Your doctor would possibly prescribe low-dose aspirin therapy to help stop cardiovascular disease if you are at high risk. Healthy lifestyle selections remain key, however.