Type 1 Diabetes Definition
Type 1 diabetes, Also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a lifelong disease in which the pancreas produces very small or no insulin.
Insulin is a hormone required to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to provide energy.Visit Link To Know More About Diabetes.
Different factors, together with genetics and a few viruses, could contribute to type 1 diabetes.
Though type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or adolescence, it will also develop in adults.
Despite ongoing research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet, and lifestyle to prevent complications.
The role of insulin
Once a big number of islet cells are destroyed, you will produce very little or no insulin. insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland located behind and below the stomach (pancreas).
⇒ The pancreas secretes insulin into the blood.
⇒ insulin circulates, permitting sugar to enter your cells.
⇒ insulin lowers the quantity of sugar in your blood.
⇒ As your blood sugar level drops so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.
The role of glucose
Glucose — a sugar — could be a main source of energy for the cells that build up muscles and different tissues.
⇒ glucose comes from 2 major sources: food and your liver.
⇒ Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin.
⇒ Your liver stores glucose as glycogen.
⇒ When you haven’t eaten in a while and your glucose levels are low, the liver breaks down the stored glycogen into glucose to stay your glucose levels within a healthy range.
In type 1 diabetes, there is no insulin to let glucose into the cells, thus sugar builds up in your bloodstream. this could cause life-threatening complications.
Here is some signs ands symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes :
⇒ Heavy thirst
⇒ increased hunger (especially after eating)
⇒ Dry mouth
⇒ Nausea and vomiting
⇒ Pain in your belly
⇒ Frequent urination
⇒ Unexplained weight loss (even although you’re eating and feel hungry)
⇒ Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)
⇒ Blurred vision
⇒ Heavy, labored breathing (your doctor can call this Kussmaul respiration)
⇒ Frequent infections of the skin, urinary tract, or vagina
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Signs of an emergency with type 1 diabetes include:
⇒ Shaking and confusion
⇒ fast breathing
⇒ Fruity smell to your breath
⇒ Pain in your belly
⇒ Loss of consciousness (rare)
Type 1 Diabetes Causes
Doctors don’t know all the things that cause type 1 diabetes. however, they do know your genes play a role.
They also know type 1 diabetes may end up when something in the surroundings, like a virus, tells your immune system to go after your pancreas.
most people with type 1 diabetes have signs of this attack, referred to as autoantibodies. They’re present in almost everyone who has the condition when their blood glucose is high.
Type 1 diabetes will happen along with different autoimmune diseases, like Grave’s disease or vitiligo.Visit Link To Know Type 2 Diabetes Causes.
Risk Factors And Complication
Here are some risk factors for type 1 diabetes :
family history : Anyone from a family with type 1 diabetes has a slightly Bigger risk of developing the condition.
Genetics : The presence of certain genes indicates an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Geography : The rate of type 1 diabetes tends to increase as you move away from the equator.
Age : although type 1 diabetes will appear at any age, it appears at 2 noticeable peaks. the first peak occurs in children between 4 and 7 years old, and the second is in children between 10 and 14 years old.
Over time, type 1 diabetes complications will affect major organs in your body, together with heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes, and kidneys.
Maintaining a normal blood sugar level will dramatically reduce the chance of many complications.
Eventually, diabetes complications could also be disabling or even life-threatening.
Heart and blood vessel disease : diabetes dramatically will increase your risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure.
Nerve damage (neuropathy) : Excess sugar will injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that support your nerves, especially in the legs.
This may cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Poorly controlled blood sugar might cause you to eventually lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs.
damage to the nerves that affect the alimentary canal can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, erectile dysfunction may be a problem.
Kidney damage (nephropathy) : The kidneys contain several tiny blood vessel clusters that filter waste from your blood. diabetes will harm this delicate filtering system.
Severe harm will cause kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which needs dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Eye damage : diabetes will harm the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially causing blindness. diabetes also will increase the risk of other serious vision conditions, like cataracts and glaucoma.
Foot damage : Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet will increase the danger of various foot complications. Left untreated, cuts and injuries will become dangerous infections which will ultimately require toe, foot or leg amputation.
Skin and mouth conditions : diabetes might leave you more susceptible to infections of the skin and mouth, together with bacterial and fungal infections. Gum disease and dry mouth are also more possible.
Pregnancy complications : High blood sugar levels can be dangerous for both the mother and also the baby. the danger of miscarriage, stillbirth and birth defects will increase when diabetes is not well-controlled.
For the mother, diabetes will increase the danger of diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic eye problems (retinopathy), pregnancy-induced high blood pressure and preeclampsia.
If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, he will test your blood sugar levels.
He could test your urine for glucose or chemicals your body makes when you don’t have enough insulin.
Right now there’s no way to prevent type 1 diabetes.
Many people with type 1 diabetes live long, healthy lives. The key to good health is to stay your blood sugar levels within the range your doctor provides you. You’ll need to check them often and adjust insulin, food, and activities to make that happen.
All people with type 1 diabetes should use insulin injections to control their blood sugar.
When your doctor talks about insulin, he’ll mention 3 main things:
⇒ “Onset” is the length of time before it reaches your bloodstream and begins lowering blood sugar.
⇒ “Peak time” is the time period in which insulin is doing the utmost work in terms of lowering blood sugar.
⇒ “Duration” is how long it working after onset.
Several types of insulin are available.
⇒ Rapid-acting starts to work in about 15 minutes. It peaks around 1 hour when you take it and continues to work for 2 to 4 hours.
⇒ Regular or short-acting gets to work in about 30 minutes. It peaks between 2 and 3 hours and keeps operating for 3 to 6 hours.
⇒ Intermediate-acting won’t get into your bloodstream for 2 to 4 hours after injection. It peaks from 4 to 12 hours and works for 12 to 18 hours.
⇒ long-acting takes several hours to get into your system and lasts for about 24 hours.
Your doctor might begin you out with 2 injections each day of 2 differing types of insulin. you will get to 3 or four shots a day.
Most insulin comes in a tiny glass bottle known as a vial.
You draw it out with a syringe that includes a needle on the top and provides yourself the shot. Some now come in a prefilled pen. One kind is inhaled.
you’ll also get it from a pump — a device you wear that sends it into your body via a small tube. Your doctor can help you to choose the type and the delivery method that’s best for you.