type 2 diabetes : symptoms causes and treatment

Type 2 Diabetes : Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

(Last Updated On: February 28, 2018)

Type 2 Diabetes Definition

Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. it is a chronic problem during which blood glucose (sugar) will not be regulated. There are 2 reasons for this.

First, the cells of the body become immune to insulin (insulin resistant). insulin works like a key to let glucose (blood sugar) move out of the blood and into the cells where it is used as fuel for energy.

When the cells become insulin resistant, it needs more and more insulin to move sugar into the cells, and too much sugar stays in the blood. Over time, if the cells need more and more insulin, the pancreas cannot create enough insulin to keep up and begins to fail.

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Difference

If you have type 2, you’ll lower high blood sugar levels with diet, exercise, and oral medicine that either build the body more sensitive to insulin or help the pancreas release more insulin.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot build any insulin and people have to depend on injections of insulin to lower blood sugar.

Over time, individuals with type 2 can also need insulin. This happens when the pancreas “wears out.”

Type 2 diabetes symptoms

Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually grow slowly. In fact, you’ll have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for:

Increased thirst and frequent urination : Excess sugar builds up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be forced from the tissues. this might leave you thirsty. As a result, you will drink — and urinate — more than usual.

Increased hunger : while not sufficient insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become empty of energy. This triggers intense hunger.

Weight loss : Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you will lose weight. without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses various fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine.

Fatigue : The absence of sugar from your cell make you tired and irritable.

Blurred vision : If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. this might have an effect on your ability to focus.

Slow-healing sores or frequent infections : type 2 diabetes affects your ability to recover and counter infections.

Areas of darkened skin : Some individuals with type 2 diabetes have patches of dark, velvety skin in the folds and creases of their bodies — usually in the armpits and neck. This condition, referred to as acanthosis nigricans, is also a symptom of insulin resistance.( For Detailed Information About Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Click Here)

Type 2 Diabetes Causes

Your pancreas makes a hormone referred to as insulin. It’s what lets your cells turn glucose from the food you eat into energy. individuals with type 2 diabetes create insulin, however, their cells do not use it as well as they should. Doctors call this insulin resistance.

At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into the cells. however eventually it cannot continue, and therefore the sugar builds up in your blood instead.

Usually, a mixture of things causes type 2 diabetes, including:

Genes : Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin.

Extra weight : Being overweight or obese will cause insulin resistance, particularly if you carry your extra pounds around the middle. now type 2 diabetes affects kids and teens as well as adults, mainly due to childhood obesity.

Metabolic syndrome : people with insulin resistance usually have a bunch of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood glucose, extra fat around the waist, and high cholesterol and triglycerides.

Too much glucose from your liver : when your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. after you eat, your blood sugar increases, and usually, the liver can decrease and store its glucose for later. but, some people’s livers don’t. They keep cranking out sugar.

Bad communication between cells : sometimes cells send the wrong signals or do not pick up messages correctly. when these problems affect how your cells create and use insulin or glucose, a chain reaction will cause diabetes.

Broken beta cells : If the cells that create the insulin transmit the wrong amount of insulin at the wrong time, your blood sugar gets thrown off. High blood glucose will damage these cells, too.

Other causes include unhealthy lifestyle habits, for example, if you:

Eat too much sugar and carbohydrates

Eat or drink foods with artificial sweeteners

Don’t get enough exercise

Are under chronic, high stress

Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors

While certain things make getting diabetes more possible, they will not offer you the disease. however, the more that apply to you, the higher your possibilities of getting it are.

Some stuff you can’t control.

Age: 45 or older
Family: A parent, sister, or brother with diabetes
Ethnicity: African-American, Alaska native, Native American, Asian-American, Hispanic or Latino, or Pacific Islander-American

Some things are associated with your health and medical history. Your doctor may be able to help.

Prediabetes
Heart and blood vessel disease
High blood pressure, even if it’s treated and under control
Low HDL (“good”) cholesterol
High triglycerides
Being overweight or obese
Having a baby that weighed over 9 pounds
Having gestational diabetes while you were pregnant
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition with dark rashes around your neck or armpits
Depression

Other risk factors have to do with your daily habits and lifestyle. These are the ones you’ll really do something about.

getting very little or no exercise
Smoking
Stress
Sleeping insufficient or too much

Type 2 Diabetes Prevention

Healthy lifestyle selections will help you stop type 2 diabetes. even if you have diabetes in your family, diet and exercise will help you stop the disease.

If you have already received a diagnosis of diabetes, you’ll use healthy lifestyle choices to help stop complications. And if you have prediabetes, lifestyle modifications will slow or stop the progress from prediabetes to diabetes.

Eat healthy foods : select foods lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber. target fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

Get physical : Aim for a minimum of half-hour of moderate physical activity every day. Take a brisk daily walk. Ride a bike. Swim laps. If you cannot fit in a long workout, spread 10-minute or longer sessions throughout the day.

Lose excess pounds : If you are overweight, losing 7 % of your weight will reduce the risk of diabetes. to stay your weight in a healthy range, focus on permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits. inspire yourself by remembering the advantages of losing weight, like a healthier heart, more energy, and improved self-esteem.

Sometimes medication is an option as well. metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others), an oral diabetes medication, might reduce the danger of type 2 diabetes — however healthy life-style selections remain essential.

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you will be given a:

Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test : This blood test shows your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. the higher your blood sugar levels, the higher hemoglobin you’ll require with sugar attached. an A1C level of 6.5 % or higher on 2 separate tests shows you have diabetes.

A result between 5.7 and 6.4 % is considered prediabetes, that indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. normal levels are below 5.7 percent.

If the A1C test is not available, or if you have some conditions — like if you are pregnant or have an abnormal form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — which will make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor might use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:

Random blood sugar test : A sample of blood is taken at a random time. despite when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, particularly when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, like frequent urination and extreme thirst.

Fasting blood sugar test : A blood sample is taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it’s 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on 2 separate tests, you have diabetes.

Oral glucose tolerance test : For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next 2 hours.

A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates prediabetes. A reading of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher after 2 hours might indicate diabetes.

The American Diabetes Association recommends routine screening for type 2 diabetes starting at age 45, particularly if you are overweight. If the results are normal, repeat the test every 3 years. If the results are borderline, ask your doctor when to come back for another test.

Screening is also suggested for those who are under 45 and overweight if there are other heart disease or diabetes risk factors present, like an inactive lifestyle, a family history of type 2 diabetes, a personal history of gestational diabetes or blood pressure higher than 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

If you are diagnosed with diabetes, the doctor could do different tests to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes — since the 2 conditions often need different treatments.

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes Includes :

 ⇒ Healthy eating

Regular exercise

Possibly, diabetes medication

Blood sugar monitoring

Healthy Eating

If you have this type of diabetes the foods you eat should have a low glycemic load (index) (foods higher in fiber, protein or fats) like vegetables and good quality protein like fish, chicken, beans, and lentils. From that base, different types of nutritious foods like fruit, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and nuts should be added.

Foods with a high glycemic index (foods that raise blood sugar too quickly) are foods to avoid, like processed foods, high in carbohydrates, sugars, or animal fat. examples of foods to avoid include: ( List Of Super Foods For Diabetic Diet)

Deserts
Sweets
Pastries
Bread
Chips
Crackers
Pasta

A good rule of thumb is to avoid white foods (except for cauliflower!).

Regular Exercise

Everyone requires daily aerobic exercise, and people who have type 2 diabetes are no exception. Get your doctor’s OK before you start an exercise schedule. Then choose activities you enjoy, like walking, swimming, and biking. what is most vital is making physical activity part of your daily routine.

Aim for a minimum of half-hour of aerobic exercise 5 days of the week. Stretching and strength training exercises are vital, too. If you haven’t been active for a while, begin slowly and build up step by step.

A combination of exercises — aerobic exercises, like walking or dancing on most days, combined with resistance training, like weightlifting or yoga twice a week — usually helps control blood sugar more effectively than either type of exercise alone.

Remember that physical activity lowers blood sugar. Check your blood sugar level before any activity. you may need to eat a snack before exercising to help prevent low blood sugar if you are taking diabetes medications that lower your blood sugar.

Medication

Some people who have type 2 diabetes can achieve their target blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone, however, several also need diabetes medications. the choice about which medications are best depends on several factors, as well as your blood sugar level and the other health issues you have. Your doctor would possibly even mix drugs from different classes to help you control your blood sugar in many different ways.

Medicine For Type 2 Diabetes Includes :

Metformin

Sulfonylureas

Meglitinides

Thiazolidinediones: pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia)

acarbose (Precose)

pramlintide (Symlin)

exenatide (Byetta)

liraglutide (Victoza)

Long-acting exenatide (Bydureon)

albiglutide (Tanzeum)

dulaglutide (Trulicity)

DPP-IV inhibitors (sitagliptin [Januvia], saxagliptin [Onglyza], linagliptin [Tradjenta])

Combination drugs (Glyburide/metformin [Glucovance], rosiglitazone/metformin [Avandamet], glipizide/metformin [Metaglip], pioglitazone/metformin [Actoplusmet], and metformin/sitagliptin [Janumet])

(For Detailed Information About Metformin Click Here)

 

 

Reference

American diabetes association

Wikipedia

 

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